Rust-based Ransomware can hit anywhere including Windows, Linux and VMware ESXi

While it’s great for application developers to write applications in a language that runs seamlessly on many different operating systems, there is a downside to the application’s intention. Ransomware has damaged many companies, causing downtime, money, and sleepless nights. Looking into some statistics you can find damage predictions of $265 billion by 2031.

Writing Ransomware software in a development language like Rust opens new ways of attack as it can be easily compiled to work on many different operating systems including hypervisors like VMware ESXi.


There is a syndicate called Black Basta that provides ransomware-as-a-service (Raas) that became prominent very quickly by amassing 50 victims within 2 months and is known for cross-platform ransomware development. And that cross-platform ransomware is already becoming a trend.


Some researchers warn that “Ransomware remains a big problem for today’s society – as soon as some families come off the stage, others take their place.” It is becoming the biggest global cyber treat.

To avoid being the next victim on the list many countermeasures are required and will help guard against many new problems that will arise over the coming months and year. Here are some general guidelines.

Know your software

An important countermeasure is to have a actively maintained catalog of the software that is running in your data center, computer, and edge device. Having SBOMs (Software Bill of Materials) and active search capabilities over dynamic SBOMs is a great help. Especially for cross-platform ransomware  which typically is delivered as a single binary and the unique checksum disclosed by ransomware researcher or as part of security advisories.

As an example, one version of the ransomware binary hash (or checksum) that can affect Linux and VMware ESXi is 0d6c3de5aebbbe85939d7588150edf7b7bdc712fceb6a83d79e65b6f79bfc2ef.

Having a software platform like Codenotary Trustcenter enables you to simply search for this checksum or any other you are aware of. That way you can find out if you already have that component in your environment or get alerts the moment it is detected somewhere. Of course you can also pro-actively untrust these hashes when you read about it, so your build and/or deployment process don’t even continue when such a checksum appears.

Be aware

The chances of becoming a victim of a ransomware attack are increasing every day. The bad actors are very creative with email campaigns, social engineering or even fake job offers. Having Web Application Firewalls (WAF) in place is very important to protect against exposed software and database vulnerabilities. Antivirus software and vulnerability scanner to detect known threats. Backup and Archiving solutions need to be in place as well – the last resort.

But awareness of every team member in your company or organization is of huge importance.

There is much more to it, but in general – if something looks fishy, don’t open it.

Software Updates

Updating software and operating systems is always a bit risky, but not updating it is even riskier today. If there is an exploit that can be used because of an older version of a library or application, you open the doors for malicious code including ransomware. Log4j is still a very present example and will take a long time before the exploit will stop and the updates are in place.

Permissions, Permissions, Permissions

Many applications can’t do much or limit damage when the permissions are restrictive. The principle of least privilege is key and very important. Don’t open applications with elevated permissions you don’t know and are scanned and approved. Don’t log in as root or use sudo to run applications.

Codenotary Cloud


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Our highly scalable service already processes tens of millions of transactions every single month.


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Use Case - Tamper-resistant Clinical Trials


Blockchain PoCs were unsuccessful due to complexity and lack of developers.

Still the goal of data immutability as well as client verification is a crucial. Furthermore, the system needs to be easy to use and operate (allowing backup, maintenance windows aso.).


immudb is running in different datacenters across the globe. All clinical trial information is stored in immudb either as transactions or the pdf documents as a whole.

Having that single source of truth with versioned, timestamped, and cryptographically verifiable records, enables a whole new way of transparency and trust.

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Store the source data, the decision and the rule base for financial support from governments timestamped, verifiable.

A very important functionality is the ability to compare the historic decision (based on the past rulebase) with the rulebase at a different date. Fully cryptographic verifiable Time Travel queries are required to be able to achieve that comparison.


While the source data, rulebase and the documented decision are stored in verifiable Blobs in immudb, the transaction is stored using the relational layer of immudb.

That allows the use of immudb’s time travel capabilities to retrieve verified historic data and recalculate with the most recent rulebase.

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No matter if it’s an eCommerce platform or NFT marketplace, the goals are similar:

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  • comply with regulations (PCI, GDPR, …)


immudb is typically scaled out using Hyperscaler (i. e. AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure) distributed across the Globe. Auditors are also distributed to track the verification proof over time. Additionally, the shop or marketplace applications store immudb cryptographic state information. That high level of integrity and tamper-evidence while maintaining a very high transaction speed is key for companies to chose immudb.

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IoT sensor data received by devices collecting environment data needs to be stored locally in a cryptographically verifiable manner until the data is transferred to a central datacenter. The data integrity needs to be verifiable at any given point in time and while in transit.


immudb runs embedded on the IoT device itself and is consistently audited by external probes. The data transfer to audit is minimal and works even with minimum bandwidth and unreliable connections.

Whenever the IoT devices are connected to a high bandwidth, the data transfer happens to a data center (large immudb deployment) and the source and destination date integrity is fully verified.

Use Case - DevOps Evidence


CI/CD and application build logs need to be stored auditable and tamper-evident.
A very high Performance is required as the system should not slow down any build process.
Scalability is key as billions of artifacts are expected within the next years.
Next to a possibility of integrity validation, data needs to be retrievable by pipeline job id or digital asset checksum.


As part of the CI/CD audit functionality, data is stored within immudb using the Key/Value functionality. Key is either the CI/CD job id (i. e. Jenkins or GitLab) or the checksum of the resulting build or container image.

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