Although you´ve done as much as you can do (or afford) to avoid a virtual machine crash, it can always happen. Sometimes you´re storage system goes down, sometime your HBA breaks or the fabric in between. Many misconfigurations lead to a non-redundant situation you find out about when it goes down. Therefore you should run an vSphere Health Analyzer Test to make sure.

If your VMware vCenter Server Appliance crashes and the VCSA filesystem is affected (especially VCSA 6, VMware vSphere 6) , it might happen that the system is not recovering anymore. You end up with a nice console message telling you that the filesystem is corrupt and you can try to recover it manually. You need to know that VCSA 6 is using a LVM (logical volume manager), so for most system administrators with little linux experience it can be pretty hard to troubleshoot.

You can get a better understanding when reading Cormac Hogan’s Post about fsck on VCSA 6.0 and the lvm partitions.

fsck failed.  Please repair manually and reboot.  The root**file system is currently mounted read-only.  To remount it read-write do:**

 bash# mount -n -o remount,rw 

Actually that is not so simple when using VCSA as the shell (bash) is not enabled by default and you don’t have a chance to do so without changing the grub boot entry.

VCSA Grub Entry

Within the grub boot menu you need to press p to get into the boot options, using vmware as the default password or your own password configured for the root account.

VCSA grub password

Select VMware vCenter Server Appliance and hit e to edit the grub entry.

VCSA grub bootmenu

Select the second entry that starts with kernel and hit e again to edit that.

VCSA Bootmenu edit kernel entry

Change the line and append init=/bin/bash and hit enter to enable the bash shell after the OS start.

VCSA grub boot bash

Press b to boot the changed grub entry

bash prompt to fix VCSA filesystem

You should see a command prompt to enter 

mount -n -o remount,rw

fsck -f -c -y

That starts fixing all filesystem errors. After a while you should get some messages about VCSA filesystem issues you need to confirm to fix them. Therefore it always makes sense to create a VM snapshot before starting the filesystem fix.

When all is done, the command reboot is all you need and VCSA should start without any issues.

You can read more about VMware vCenter Server Appliance (VCSA) filesystem issues here:

vCenter Appliance fsck failed

fsck of vCenter Server Appliance 6.0 partitions

Metrics and Logs

(formerly, Opvizor Performance Analyzer)

VMware vSphere & Cloud

Monitor and Analyze Performance and Log files:
Performance monitoring for your systems and applications with log analysis (tamperproof using immudb) and license compliance (RedHat, Oracle, SAP and more) in one virtual appliance!

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Use Case - Tamper-resistant Clinical Trials


Blockchain PoCs were unsuccessful due to complexity and lack of developers.

Still the goal of data immutability as well as client verification is a crucial. Furthermore, the system needs to be easy to use and operate (allowing backup, maintenance windows aso.).


immudb is running in different datacenters across the globe. All clinical trial information is stored in immudb either as transactions or the pdf documents as a whole.

Having that single source of truth with versioned, timestamped, and cryptographically verifiable records, enables a whole new way of transparency and trust.

Use Case - Finance


Store the source data, the decision and the rule base for financial support from governments timestamped, verifiable.

A very important functionality is the ability to compare the historic decision (based on the past rulebase) with the rulebase at a different date. Fully cryptographic verifiable Time Travel queries are required to be able to achieve that comparison.


While the source data, rulebase and the documented decision are stored in verifiable Blobs in immudb, the transaction is stored using the relational layer of immudb.

That allows the use of immudb’s time travel capabilities to retrieve verified historic data and recalculate with the most recent rulebase.

Use Case - eCommerce and NFT marketplace


No matter if it’s an eCommerce platform or NFT marketplace, the goals are similar:

  • High amount of transactions (potentially millions a second)
  • Ability to read and write multiple records within one transaction
  • prevent overwrite or updates on transactions
  • comply with regulations (PCI, GDPR, …)


immudb is typically scaled out using Hyperscaler (i. e. AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure) distributed across the Globe. Auditors are also distributed to track the verification proof over time. Additionally, the shop or marketplace applications store immudb cryptographic state information. That high level of integrity and tamper-evidence while maintaining a very high transaction speed is key for companies to chose immudb.

Use Case - IoT Sensor Data


IoT sensor data received by devices collecting environment data needs to be stored locally in a cryptographically verifiable manner until the data is transferred to a central datacenter. The data integrity needs to be verifiable at any given point in time and while in transit.


immudb runs embedded on the IoT device itself and is consistently audited by external probes. The data transfer to audit is minimal and works even with minimum bandwidth and unreliable connections.

Whenever the IoT devices are connected to a high bandwidth, the data transfer happens to a data center (large immudb deployment) and the source and destination date integrity is fully verified.

Use Case - DevOps Evidence


CI/CD and application build logs need to be stored auditable and tamper-evident.
A very high Performance is required as the system should not slow down any build process.
Scalability is key as billions of artifacts are expected within the next years.
Next to a possibility of integrity validation, data needs to be retrievable by pipeline job id or digital asset checksum.


As part of the CI/CD audit functionality, data is stored within immudb using the Key/Value functionality. Key is either the CI/CD job id (i. e. Jenkins or GitLab) or the checksum of the resulting build or container image.

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