Whenever you need a nice and small Kubernetes demo and test environment, Minikube is the way to go. There are plenty of different ways to setup a small Kubernetes test cluster, but Minikube is by far the fastest and easiest way.

Many people run it on Workstation software like Virtualbox or VMware Fusion, but also on Hyper-V and KVM.

As Minikube runs on Linux without any big requirements, we chose Photon OS 3 on top of VMware vSphere, to setup our demo environments.

The following guideline was the result of our efforts.

After installing the Photon OS 3 VM and configuring it with 4 vCPUs and 8 GB of memory (feel free to adjust), we can start installing Minikube.

Just use the following command to install the latest version.

Minikube Installation

_c_url -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/latest/minikube-linux-amd64 && sudo install minikube-linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/minikube

and run minikube version to check the installed version.


Install Kubectl

curl -Lo kubectl https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.12.4/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl && chmod +x kubectl && sudo cp kubectl /usr/local/bin/ && rm kubectl

Start Minikube

First make sure that docker is configured and started: systemctl start docker.service

Just run 

minikube start –vm-driver=none

and the process will download all required installation files. The parameter –vm-driver=none is important to let Minikube know, that it shouldn’t use any local virtualization engine, like Virtualbox.

Minikube start

If all went well, you should see the following text:


        The ‘none’ driver will run an insecure kubernetes apiserver as root that may leave the host vulnerable to CSRF attacks

When using the none driver, the kubectl config and credentials generated will be root owned and will appear in the root home directory.

You will need to move the files to the appropriate location and then set the correct permissions.  An example of this is below:

sudo mv /root/.kube $HOME/.kube # this will write over any previous configuration
sudo chown -R $USER $HOME/.kube
sudo chgrp -R $USER $HOME/.kube
sudo mv /root/.minikube $HOME/.minikube # this will write over any previous configuration
sudo chown -R $USER $HOME/.minikube
sudo chgrp -R $USER $HOME/.minikube

This can also be done automatically by setting the env var CHANGE_MINIKUBE_NONE_USER=true

Loading cached images from config file.

Everything looks great. Please enjoy minikube!

Run your first container on the Minikube Kubernetes Setup

Let´s run the first container

kubectl run hello-minikube –image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.4 –port=8080

Expose the port

kubectl expose deployment hello-minikube –type=NodePort

Check if the container is running

kubectl get pod

Test the service

curl $(minikube service hello-minikube –url)


To remove the whole test run the following commands:

kubectl delete service hello-minikube

kubectl delete deployment hello-minikube

minikube stop

The next posts will be around testing management tools and monitoring using Minikube.

Metrics and Logs

(formerly, Opvizor Performance Analyzer)

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Use Case - Tamper-resistant Clinical Trials


Blockchain PoCs were unsuccessful due to complexity and lack of developers.

Still the goal of data immutability as well as client verification is a crucial. Furthermore, the system needs to be easy to use and operate (allowing backup, maintenance windows aso.).


immudb is running in different datacenters across the globe. All clinical trial information is stored in immudb either as transactions or the pdf documents as a whole.

Having that single source of truth with versioned, timestamped, and cryptographically verifiable records, enables a whole new way of transparency and trust.

Use Case - Finance


Store the source data, the decision and the rule base for financial support from governments timestamped, verifiable.

A very important functionality is the ability to compare the historic decision (based on the past rulebase) with the rulebase at a different date. Fully cryptographic verifiable Time Travel queries are required to be able to achieve that comparison.


While the source data, rulebase and the documented decision are stored in verifiable Blobs in immudb, the transaction is stored using the relational layer of immudb.

That allows the use of immudb’s time travel capabilities to retrieve verified historic data and recalculate with the most recent rulebase.

Use Case - eCommerce and NFT marketplace


No matter if it’s an eCommerce platform or NFT marketplace, the goals are similar:

  • High amount of transactions (potentially millions a second)
  • Ability to read and write multiple records within one transaction
  • prevent overwrite or updates on transactions
  • comply with regulations (PCI, GDPR, …)


immudb is typically scaled out using Hyperscaler (i. e. AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure) distributed across the Globe. Auditors are also distributed to track the verification proof over time. Additionally, the shop or marketplace applications store immudb cryptographic state information. That high level of integrity and tamper-evidence while maintaining a very high transaction speed is key for companies to chose immudb.

Use Case - IoT Sensor Data


IoT sensor data received by devices collecting environment data needs to be stored locally in a cryptographically verifiable manner until the data is transferred to a central datacenter. The data integrity needs to be verifiable at any given point in time and while in transit.


immudb runs embedded on the IoT device itself and is consistently audited by external probes. The data transfer to audit is minimal and works even with minimum bandwidth and unreliable connections.

Whenever the IoT devices are connected to a high bandwidth, the data transfer happens to a data center (large immudb deployment) and the source and destination date integrity is fully verified.

Use Case - DevOps Evidence


CI/CD and application build logs need to be stored auditable and tamper-evident.
A very high Performance is required as the system should not slow down any build process.
Scalability is key as billions of artifacts are expected within the next years.
Next to a possibility of integrity validation, data needs to be retrievable by pipeline job id or digital asset checksum.


As part of the CI/CD audit functionality, data is stored within immudb using the Key/Value functionality. Key is either the CI/CD job id (i. e. Jenkins or GitLab) or the checksum of the resulting build or container image.

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