vcsa-6-5-reset-root-password

It’s always a very annoying situation when you can’t login into a system anymore because you either don’t know the root password anymore or the system is not able to log you in. The latter can happen if the root mountpoint of the VCSA 6.5 appliance filled up.

As VCSA (vCenter Server Appliance) 6.5 is build on top of Photon OS, you can’t use the same standard procedure you know from Debian, Ubuntu or RedHat. But relax, it’s very simple to reset the root password or clean up a filled up root partition.

First thing to do is to restart your vCenter appliance and wait for the Photon OS Splash screen during boot. 

VCSA Splash Screen reset root password

Hit the letter e to enter the boot menu.

Then change to the GNU GRUB boot menu editor and hit enter.

VCSA Grub menu

Next is to add the following string behind the line that starts with linux: rw init=/bin/bash

boot line to vcsa root reset password

Hit the F10 function key to boot the changed entry.

Clean up the root partition

In many cases you should check the root partition usage, using the df -h command. Very often the log files grew large and filled up your partition. One well known guy is the audit.log in /var/log/audit. So type ls -sh /var/log/audit to check the file size and rm /var/log/audit/*.log to clean it up.

Reset the root password

If you’re sure that you have to reset the root password, please follow these steps:

passwd

then enter a strong password twice and remember it.

umount /

reboot -f

It is important to add the -f behind the reboot.

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Metrics and Logs

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VMware vSphere & Cloud
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Use Case - Tamper-resistant Clinical Trials

Goal:

Blockchain PoCs were unsuccessful due to complexity and lack of developers.

Still the goal of data immutability as well as client verification is a crucial. Furthermore, the system needs to be easy to use and operate (allowing backup, maintenance windows aso.).

Implementation:

immudb is running in different datacenters across the globe. All clinical trial information is stored in immudb either as transactions or the pdf documents as a whole.

Having that single source of truth with versioned, timestamped, and cryptographically verifiable records, enables a whole new way of transparency and trust.

Use Case - Finance

Goal:

Store the source data, the decision and the rule base for financial support from governments timestamped, verifiable.

A very important functionality is the ability to compare the historic decision (based on the past rulebase) with the rulebase at a different date. Fully cryptographic verifiable Time Travel queries are required to be able to achieve that comparison.

Implementation:

While the source data, rulebase and the documented decision are stored in verifiable Blobs in immudb, the transaction is stored using the relational layer of immudb.

That allows the use of immudb’s time travel capabilities to retrieve verified historic data and recalculate with the most recent rulebase.

Use Case - eCommerce and NFT marketplace

Goal:

No matter if it’s an eCommerce platform or NFT marketplace, the goals are similar:

  • High amount of transactions (potentially millions a second)
  • Ability to read and write multiple records within one transaction
  • prevent overwrite or updates on transactions
  • comply with regulations (PCI, GDPR, …)


Implementation:

immudb is typically scaled out using Hyperscaler (i. e. AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure) distributed across the Globe. Auditors are also distributed to track the verification proof over time. Additionally, the shop or marketplace applications store immudb cryptographic state information. That high level of integrity and tamper-evidence while maintaining a very high transaction speed is key for companies to chose immudb.

Use Case - IoT Sensor Data

Goal:

IoT sensor data received by devices collecting environment data needs to be stored locally in a cryptographically verifiable manner until the data is transferred to a central datacenter. The data integrity needs to be verifiable at any given point in time and while in transit.

Implementation:

immudb runs embedded on the IoT device itself and is consistently audited by external probes. The data transfer to audit is minimal and works even with minimum bandwidth and unreliable connections.

Whenever the IoT devices are connected to a high bandwidth, the data transfer happens to a data center (large immudb deployment) and the source and destination date integrity is fully verified.

Use Case - DevOps Evidence

Goal:

CI/CD and application build logs need to be stored auditable and tamper-evident.
A very high Performance is required as the system should not slow down any build process.
Scalability is key as billions of artifacts are expected within the next years.
Next to a possibility of integrity validation, data needs to be retrievable by pipeline job id or digital asset checksum.

Implementation:

As part of the CI/CD audit functionality, data is stored within immudb using the Key/Value functionality. Key is either the CI/CD job id (i. e. Jenkins or GitLab) or the checksum of the resulting build or container image.

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