Most of the enterprises running VMware vCenter connect that to Microsoft Active Directly to give more granular permissions to already existing AD user accounts.

The process of connecting VMware vCSA with Active Directory is quite straight forward, yet can be cumbersome.

Unfortunately a very annoying thing can be the misleading error message, like "Error while extracting local SSO users".  In this Blog post you will read more about issues like that and how to solve them.

How to integrate VMware vCSA into Microsoft AD

That should be a simple step, especially since VMware integrated all settings within the vSphere Web Client. You can find the integration within the navigation / Administration / System Configuration.

VMware vCSA with Active Directory

Then select the vCenter Node under Nodes on the left and select Manage / Active Directory in the main screen.


Click on Join and fill in the blanks.

AD join VCSA

Important: Username needs to be in User Principal Name (UPN) format, for example,

When all went well, the popup disappears without any errors and you need to restart the vCSA appliance. 99% of the time, you can expect the vCSA to come up again as a member of the AD domain.

If you receive an error, you need to fix that as no reboot will help.

There are many very obvious errors like wrong credentials or that the domain could not be resolved based on a wrong dns server. But you can also encounter very mean error messages like the following: 

Error while extracting local SSO users

We could fix that one, by adding the missing PTR entry in the DNS server! Pretty clear given the error message, huh?

Be aware, the PTR entry of the AD domain controller not the vCSA itself.

To add the PTR entry for reverse lookups please check the following Help page:

After the vCSA is back up, you still need to add the Active Directory as an identity source.

VCSA Identity source

Administration / Single Sign-on / Configuration / Identity Source and then click the plus icon.

If that has been done successful, you can configure permissions to allow AD user to access the vCenter service as you do with local user.

Metrics and Logs

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Monitor and Analyze Performance and Log files:
Performance monitoring for your systems and applications with log analysis (tamperproof using immudb) and license compliance (RedHat, Oracle, SAP and more) in one virtual appliance!

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Use Case - Tamper-resistant Clinical Trials


Blockchain PoCs were unsuccessful due to complexity and lack of developers.

Still the goal of data immutability as well as client verification is a crucial. Furthermore, the system needs to be easy to use and operate (allowing backup, maintenance windows aso.).


immudb is running in different datacenters across the globe. All clinical trial information is stored in immudb either as transactions or the pdf documents as a whole.

Having that single source of truth with versioned, timestamped, and cryptographically verifiable records, enables a whole new way of transparency and trust.

Use Case - Finance


Store the source data, the decision and the rule base for financial support from governments timestamped, verifiable.

A very important functionality is the ability to compare the historic decision (based on the past rulebase) with the rulebase at a different date. Fully cryptographic verifiable Time Travel queries are required to be able to achieve that comparison.


While the source data, rulebase and the documented decision are stored in verifiable Blobs in immudb, the transaction is stored using the relational layer of immudb.

That allows the use of immudb’s time travel capabilities to retrieve verified historic data and recalculate with the most recent rulebase.

Use Case - eCommerce and NFT marketplace


No matter if it’s an eCommerce platform or NFT marketplace, the goals are similar:

  • High amount of transactions (potentially millions a second)
  • Ability to read and write multiple records within one transaction
  • prevent overwrite or updates on transactions
  • comply with regulations (PCI, GDPR, …)


immudb is typically scaled out using Hyperscaler (i. e. AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure) distributed across the Globe. Auditors are also distributed to track the verification proof over time. Additionally, the shop or marketplace applications store immudb cryptographic state information. That high level of integrity and tamper-evidence while maintaining a very high transaction speed is key for companies to chose immudb.

Use Case - IoT Sensor Data


IoT sensor data received by devices collecting environment data needs to be stored locally in a cryptographically verifiable manner until the data is transferred to a central datacenter. The data integrity needs to be verifiable at any given point in time and while in transit.


immudb runs embedded on the IoT device itself and is consistently audited by external probes. The data transfer to audit is minimal and works even with minimum bandwidth and unreliable connections.

Whenever the IoT devices are connected to a high bandwidth, the data transfer happens to a data center (large immudb deployment) and the source and destination date integrity is fully verified.

Use Case - DevOps Evidence


CI/CD and application build logs need to be stored auditable and tamper-evident.
A very high Performance is required as the system should not slow down any build process.
Scalability is key as billions of artifacts are expected within the next years.
Next to a possibility of integrity validation, data needs to be retrievable by pipeline job id or digital asset checksum.


As part of the CI/CD audit functionality, data is stored within immudb using the Key/Value functionality. Key is either the CI/CD job id (i. e. Jenkins or GitLab) or the checksum of the resulting build or container image.

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